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Radioactive Fallout After Nuclear Explosions And Accidents

Radioactive Fallout after Nuclear Explosions and Accidents PDF
Author: Y.A. Izrael
Publisher: Elsevier
Release: 2002-06-20
ISBN: 9780080540238
Size: 22.98 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 298
View: 6098

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Radioactive Fallout After Nuclear Explosions And Accidents

by Y.A. Izrael, Radioactive Fallout After Nuclear Explosions And Accidents Books available in PDF, EPUB, Mobi Format. Download Radioactive Fallout After Nuclear Explosions And Accidents books, To achieve successful solutions to the problems resulting from local, distant and global radioactive fallout after nuclear explosions and accidents and to achieve successful retrospective analyses of the radiation conditions from recent observations, certain information is needed: the distribution of the exposure dose rate in the atmosphere and in a country; the distribution of radionuclides in natural environments and the nuclide composition of the radioactive fallout; the features of formation of the aerosol particle-carriers of the radioactivity and of the nuclide distribution of the particles of different sizes formed under different conditions; the processes involved in the migration of radioactive products in different zones and environments; the external and internal effects of nuclear radiation on human beings. This monograph is devoted to a number of these problems, namely, to studies of the radioactive fallout composition, the formation of the aerosol particles that transport the radioactive products and to the analysis of the external radiation doses resulting from nuclear explosions and/or accidents. Problems of restoration and rehabilitation of contaminated land areas are also touched upon in the monograph. To solve such problems one requires knowledge of the mobility of radionuclides, an understanding of their uptake by plants, their transportation within the food chain and finally their uptake by animal and/or human organisms. The results of many years of study of radioactive fallout from atmospheric and underground nuclear explosions and accidents are summarized in this book. It is intended for various specialists - geophysicists, ecologists, health experts and inspectors, as well as those who are concerned with radioactive contamination of natural environments.



Chernobyl And Three Mile Island

Chernobyl and Three Mile Island PDF
Author: Charles River Editors
Publisher: Createspace Independent Publishing Platform
Release: 2017-10-17
ISBN: 9781978292444
Size: 35.57 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Category :
Languages : en
Pages : 154
View: 884

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Chernobyl And Three Mile Island

by Charles River Editors, Chernobyl And Three Mile Island Books available in PDF, EPUB, Mobi Format. Download Chernobyl And Three Mile Island books, *Includes pictures *Includes accounts of the accidents by survivors, workers, and residents *Includes bibliographies for further reading Uranium is best known for the destructive power of the atom bombs, which ushered in the nuclear era at the end of World War II, but given the effectiveness of nuclear power, plants like those at Three Mile Island in Pennsylvania were constructed to generate energy for Americans during the second half of the 20th century. While nuclear power plants were previously not an option and thus opened the door to new, more efficient, and more affordable forms of energy for domestic consumption, the use of nuclear energy understandably unnerved people living during the Cold War and amidst ongoing nuclear detonations. After all, the damage wrought on Hiroshima and Nagasaki made clear to everyone what nuclear energy was capable of inflicting, and the health problems encountered by people exposed to the radiation also demonstrated the horrific side effects that could come with the use of nuclear weapons or the inability to harness the technology properly. Thus, it seemed that everyone's worst fears were realized on March 28, 1979 when the nuclear plant at Three Mile Island suffered a partial meltdown. Since it occurred years before Russia's Chernobyl disaster took place, the accident, a combination of mechanical and management failures, was at the time the worst civilian nuclear disaster yet, and the predictions of its consequences were dire. Given the release of radioactive material, nearby residents feared for their lives, and the nature of the radioactive contamination meant it would take nearly 15 years and $1 billion to fully clean up after the disaster. Fortunately, the human cost was eventually ruled insignificant, but the scare forced the implementation of new regulations in an effort to ensure the use of nuclear energy was safer. As a result, Three Mile Island, while still well-known among Americans today, remains more of a caution tale than a tragedy. As bad as it was, Three Mile Island paled in comparison to Chernobyl, which to this day remains the most notorious nuclear accident in history. Located in the Ukraine, the Chernobyl power plant was undergoing experiments in the early morning hours of April 26, 1986 when it suffered a series of explosions in one of its nuclear reactors, killing over 30 people at the plant and spread radioactive fallout across a wide swath of the Soviet Union. Although the Soviets would try to cover up just how disastrous the accident at Chernobyl was, it was impossible to hide the full extent of the damage given that radioactive material was affecting Western Europe as well. All told, the accident caused an estimated $18 billion in damages, forced the evacuation of everybody nearby, and continues to produce adverse health effects that are still being felt in the region. As with Three Mile before it, Chernobyl emphatically demonstrated the dangers of nuclear power plants, and it brought about new regulations across the world in an effort to make the use of nuclear energy safer. Meanwhile, scientists and scholars are still studying the effects of the radiation on people exposed to it and continue to come up with estimates of just how deadly Chernobyl will wind up being. Chernobyl and Three Mile Island chronicles the worst nuclear accident in history and the aftermath of the accident. Along with pictures and a bibliography, you will learn about Chernobyl like never before.



Chernobyl And Three Mile Island

Chernobyl and Three Mile Island PDF
Author: Charles River Charles River Editors
Publisher: CreateSpace
Release: 2014-10-18
ISBN: 9781502883926
Size: 75.63 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
Category : History
Languages : en
Pages : 90
View: 2332

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Chernobyl And Three Mile Island

by Charles River Charles River Editors, Chernobyl And Three Mile Island Books available in PDF, EPUB, Mobi Format. Download Chernobyl And Three Mile Island books, *Includes pictures *Includes accounts of the accidents by survivors, workers, and residents *Includes bibliographies for further reading Uranium is best known for the destructive power of the atom bombs, which ushered in the nuclear era at the end of World War II, but given the effectiveness of nuclear power, plants like those at Three Mile Island in Pennsylvania were constructed to generate energy for Americans during the second half of the 20th century. While nuclear power plants were previously not an option and thus opened the door to new, more efficient, and more affordable forms of energy for domestic consumption, the use of nuclear energy understandably unnerved people living during the Cold War and amidst ongoing nuclear detonations. After all, the damage wrought on Hiroshima and Nagasaki made clear to everyone what nuclear energy was capable of inflicting, and the health problems encountered by people exposed to the radiation also demonstrated the horrific side effects that could come with the use of nuclear weapons or the inability to harness the technology properly. Thus, it seemed that everyone's worst fears were realized on March 28, 1979 when the nuclear plant at Three Mile Island suffered a partial meltdown. Since it occurred years before Russia's Chernobyl disaster took place, the accident, a combination of mechanical and management failures, was at the time the worst civilian nuclear disaster yet, and the predictions of its consequences were dire. Given the release of radioactive material, nearby residents feared for their lives, and the nature of the radioactive contamination meant it would take nearly 15 years and $1 billion to fully clean up after the disaster. Fortunately, the human cost was eventually ruled insignificant, but the scare forced the implementation of new regulations in an effort to ensure the use of nuclear energy was safer. As a result, Three Mile Island, while still well-known among Americans today, remains more of a caution tale than a tragedy. As bad as it was, Three Mile Island paled in comparison to Chernobyl, which to this day remains the most notorious nuclear accident in history. Located in the Ukraine, the Chernobyl power plant was undergoing experiments in the early morning hours of April 26, 1986 when it suffered a series of explosions in one of its nuclear reactors, killing over 30 people at the plant and spread radioactive fallout across a wide swath of the Soviet Union. Although the Soviets would try to cover up just how disastrous the accident at Chernobyl was, it was impossible to hide the full extent of the damage given that radioactive material was affecting Western Europe as well. All told, the accident caused an estimated $18 billion in damages, forced the evacuation of everybody nearby, and continues to produce adverse health effects that are still being felt in the region. As with Three Mile before it, Chernobyl emphatically demonstrated the dangers of nuclear power plants, and it brought about new regulations across the world in an effort to make the use of nuclear energy safer. Meanwhile, scientists and scholars are still studying the effects of the radiation on people exposed to it and continue to come up with estimates of just how deadly Chernobyl will wind up being. Chernobyl and Three Mile Island chronicles the worst nuclear accident in history and the aftermath of the accident. Along with pictures and a bibliography, you will learn about Chernobyl like never before.



The Radiation Legacy Of The Soviet Nuclear Complex

The Radiation Legacy of the Soviet Nuclear Complex PDF
Author: Nikolai N. Egorov
Publisher: Routledge
Release: 2014-04-08
ISBN: 1134197144
Size: 62.65 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Category : Technology & Engineering
Languages : en
Pages : 276
View: 3980

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The Radiation Legacy Of The Soviet Nuclear Complex

by Nikolai N. Egorov, The Radiation Legacy Of The Soviet Nuclear Complex Books available in PDF, EPUB, Mobi Format. Download The Radiation Legacy Of The Soviet Nuclear Complex books, A study of the legacy of nuclear contamination in the Soviet Union. It gives the location and characteristics of the accumulated radioactive material and wastes by each sector, from ore and mining to use and disposal. It describes types of storage, capacity and utilization, age and location. It gives information on the territories and locations contaminated, by normal operations and by accidents, from which strategic plans for remediation can be formulated.



Environmental Crises In Central Asia

Environmental Crises in Central Asia PDF
Author: Eric Freedman
Publisher: Routledge
Release: 2015-10-23
ISBN: 131783609X
Size: 49.67 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
Category : Business & Economics
Languages : en
Pages : 196
View: 1603

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Environmental Crises In Central Asia

by Eric Freedman, Environmental Crises In Central Asia Books available in PDF, EPUB, Mobi Format. Download Environmental Crises In Central Asia books, Environmental conditions do not exist in a vacuum. They are influenced by science, politics, history, public policy, culture, economics, public attitudes, and competing priorities, as well as past human decisions. In the case of Central Asia, such Soviet-era decisions include irrigation systems and physical infrastructure that are now crumbling, mine tailings that leach pollutants into soil and groundwater, and abandoned factories that are physically decrepit and contaminated with toxic chemicals. Environmental Crises in Central Asia highlights major environmental challenges confronting the region’s former Soviet republics: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. They include threats to the Caspian and Aral seas, the impact of climate change on glaciers, desertification, deforestation, destruction of habitat and biodiversity, radioactive and hazardous wastes, water quality and supply, energy exploration and development, pesticides and food security, and environmental health. The ramifications of these challenges cross national borders and may affect economic, political, and cultural relationships on a vast geographic scale. At the same time, the region’s five governments have demonstrated little resolve to address these complex challenges. This book is a valuable multi-disciplinary resource for academics, scholars, and policymakers in environmental sciences, geography, political science, natural resources, mass communications, public health, and economics.



Handbook For The Assessment Of Soil Erosion And Sedimentation Using Environmental Radionuclides

Handbook for the Assessment of Soil Erosion and Sedimentation Using Environmental Radionuclides PDF
Author: F. Zapata
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release: 2007-05-08
ISBN: 0306480549
Size: 76.96 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
Category : Technology & Engineering
Languages : en
Pages : 219
View: 7376

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Handbook For The Assessment Of Soil Erosion And Sedimentation Using Environmental Radionuclides

by F. Zapata, Handbook For The Assessment Of Soil Erosion And Sedimentation Using Environmental Radionuclides Books available in PDF, EPUB, Mobi Format. Download Handbook For The Assessment Of Soil Erosion And Sedimentation Using Environmental Radionuclides books, This publication deals with soil erosion and sedimentation. Soil erosion and associated sediment deposition are natural landscape-forming processes that can be greatly accelerated by human intervention through deforestation, overgrazing, and non-sustainable farming practices. Soil erosion and sedimentation may not only cause on-site degradation of the natural resource base, but also off-site problems— downstream sediment deposition in fields, floodplains and water bodies, water pollution, eutrophication and reservoir siltation, etc. —with serious environmental and economic impairment. There is an urgent need for accurate information to quantify the problem and to underpin the selection of effective soil-conservation technologies and sedimentation-remediation strategies, including assessment of environmental and economic impacts. Existing classical techniques to document soil erosion are capable of meeting some of these needs, but they all possess important limitations. The quest for alternative techniques for assessing soil erosion, to complement existing methods, directed attention to the use of environmental radionuclides, in particular fallout as tracers to quantify rates and establish patterns of soil redistribution within the landscape. The concept of a project on the use of environmental radionuclides to quantify soil redistribution was first formulated at an Advisory Group Meeting convened in Vienna, April 1993, by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).



Nuclear Risk In Central Asia

Nuclear Risk in Central Asia PDF
Author: Brit Salbu
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release: 2008-04-04
ISBN: 1402083173
Size: 27.96 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 237
View: 4788

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Nuclear Risk In Central Asia

by Brit Salbu, Nuclear Risk In Central Asia Books available in PDF, EPUB, Mobi Format. Download Nuclear Risk In Central Asia books, There is a significant number of nuclear and radiological sources in Central Asia, which have contributed, are still contributing, or have the potential to contribute to radioactive contamination in the future. Key sources and contaminated sites of concern are: The nuclear weapons tests performed at the Semipalatinsk Test Site (STS) in Kazakhstan during 1949–1989. A total of 456 nuclear weapons tests have been perf- med in the atmosphere (86), above and at ground surface (30) and underground (340) accompanied by radioactive plumes reaching far out of the test site. Safety trials at STS, where radioactive sources were spread by conventional explosives. Peaceful nuclear explosions (PNEs) within STS and outside STS in Kazakhstan, producing crater lakes (e.g., Tel’kem I and Tel’kem II), waste storage facilities (e.g., LIRA) etc. Technologically enhanced levels of naturally occurring radionuclides (TENORM) due to U mining and tailing. As a legacy of the cold war and the nuclear weapon p- gramme in the former USSR, thousands of square kilometers in the Central Asia co- tries are contaminated. Large amounts of scale from the oil and gas industries contain sufficient amounts of TENORM. Nuclear reactors, to be decommissioned or still in operation. Storage of spent nuclear fuel and other radioactive wastes. In the characterization of nuclear risks, the risks are estimated by integrating the results of the hazard identification, the effects assessment and the exposure assessment.



Fallout And Radiological Countermeasures

Fallout and Radiological Countermeasures PDF
Author: Carl F. Miller
Publisher:
Release: 1963
ISBN:
Size: 54.44 MB
Format: PDF
Category : Radioactive fallout
Languages : en
Pages :
View: 2626

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Fallout And Radiological Countermeasures

by Carl F. Miller, Fallout And Radiological Countermeasures Books available in PDF, EPUB, Mobi Format. Download Fallout And Radiological Countermeasures books, On the 16th day of August in 1945 the first nuclear explosion, Shot Trinity, was detonated at Alamagordo, New Mexico. The nuclear device was mounted on a tower at a height of about 100 feet and the energy of the explosion was equivalent to that of 19,000 tons of TNT. The explosion, as all nuclear explosions, produced radioactive materials that combined with other materials engulfed by the forces of the explosion. The product of the combination has been given the name fallout. From most nuclear explosions, fallout is in the physical form of particles. After Shot Trinity some of these particles fell on pastures and on the backs of cows at some distance from the point of detonation, and the nuclear radiations from the particles caused burn-like injuries on the cows' backs. Other than this the exposure had no ostensible influence on the life of the animals or their offspring. The incident, however, initiated interest and concern among some scientists and engineers. Both the fate of radioactive substances produced in nuclear explosions and the biological consequences of their interaction with living materials came under study.



High Field Epr Spectroscopy On Proteins And Their Model Systems

High field EPR Spectroscopy on Proteins and Their Model Systems PDF
Author: Klaus Möbius
Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry
Release: 2009-01-01
ISBN: 0854043683
Size: 43.11 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 375
View: 7391

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High Field Epr Spectroscopy On Proteins And Their Model Systems

by Klaus Möbius, High Field Epr Spectroscopy On Proteins And Their Model Systems Books available in PDF, EPUB, Mobi Format. Download High Field Epr Spectroscopy On Proteins And Their Model Systems books, Understanding the major factors determining the specificity of transmembrane transfer processes in proteins is now a hot topic in molecular bio-science. Advanced electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) at high magnetic fields is a powerful technique for characterizing the transient states of proteins in action. High-Field EPR Spectroscopy on Proteins and their Model Systems: characterization of Transient Paramagnetic States offers a comprehensive overview of experimental techniques in, and paradigmatic examples of, the application of high-field EPR spectroscopy in biology and chemistry. The book's focus is on the use of the technique in conjunction with site-specific mutation strategies and advanced quantum-chemical computation methods to reveal protein structure and dynamics. This yields new insights into biological processes at the atomic and molecular level. The theoretical and instrumental background of high-field EPR is described and examples of paradigmatic protein systems, such as photosynthetic reaction centres, are discussed in the light of recent investigations. Aspects of structure dynamics-function relations that are revealed by studying site-specific mutants are highlighted, thereby combining high-field EPR with genetic engineering techniques. The information obtained complements that obtained from protein crystallography, solid-state NMR, infrared and optical spectroscopy. The book documents both background knowledge and results of the latest research in the field. Unique features include comparisons of information content of EPR, ENDOR, Triple resonance, ESEEM and PELDOR taken at different microwave frequencies and magnetic fields. Coherent treatment of the subject by the leading Berlin high-field EPR laboratory covers the theoretical background as well as state-of-art research both in terms of instrumentation and application to biological systems. The book provides an outlook to future developments and references for further reading and is essential reading for postdoctoral scientists, professionals, academics and graduate students working in this field.



The Chernobyl Disaster

The Chernobyl Disaster PDF
Author: Charles River Editors
Publisher: CreateSpace
Release: 2014-10-18
ISBN: 9781502883711
Size: 62.56 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
Category : History
Languages : en
Pages : 44
View: 6815

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The Chernobyl Disaster

by Charles River Editors, The Chernobyl Disaster Books available in PDF, EPUB, Mobi Format. Download The Chernobyl Disaster books, *Includes pictures *Includes accounts from workers and residents *Includes a bibliography for further reading "The risk projections suggest that by now Chernobyl may have caused about 1000 cases of thyroid cancer and 4000 cases of other cancers in Europe, representing about 0.01% of all incident cancers since the accident. Models predict that by 2065 about 16,000 cases of thyroid cancer and 25,000 cases of other cancers may be expected due to radiation from the accident, whereas several hundred million cancer cases are expected from other causes." - Findings in an article published in the International Journal of Cancer in 2006 Uranium is best known for the destructive power of the atom bombs, which ushered in the nuclear era at the end of World War II, but given the effectiveness of nuclear power, nuclear power plants were constructed around the developed world during the second half of the 20th century. While nuclear power plants were previously not an option and thus opened the door to new, more efficient, and more affordable forms of energy for domestic consumption, the use of nuclear energy understandably unnerved people living during the Cold War and amidst ongoing nuclear detonations. After all, the damage wrought on Hiroshima and Nagasaki made clear to everyone what nuclear energy was capable of inflicting, and the health problems encountered by people exposed to the radiation also demonstrated the horrific side effects that could come with the use of nuclear weapons or the inability to harness the technology properly. The first major accident at a nuclear power plant took place at Three Mile Island in Pennsylvania in 1979, which took nearly 15 years and $1 billion to fully clean up after that disaster, but Three Mile Island paled in comparison to Chernobyl, which to this day remains the most notorious nuclear accident in history. Located in the Ukraine, the Chernobyl power plant was undergoing experiments in the early morning hours of April 26, 1986 when it suffered a series of explosions in one of its nuclear reactors, killing over 30 people at the plant and spread radioactive fallout across a wide swath of the Soviet Union. Although the Soviets would try to cover up just how disastrous the accident at Chernobyl was, it was impossible to hide the full extent of the damage given that radioactive material was affecting Western Europe as well. All told, the accident caused an estimated $18 billion in damages, forced the evacuation of everybody nearby, and continues to produce adverse health effects that are still being felt in the region. As with Three Mile Island before it, Chernobyl emphatically demonstrated the dangers of nuclear power plants, and it brought about new regulations across the world in an effort to make the use of nuclear energy safer. Meanwhile, scientists and scholars are still studying the effects of the radiation on people exposed to it and continue to come up with estimates of just how deadly Chernobyl will wind up being. The Chernobyl Disaster chronicles the worst nuclear accident in history and the aftermath of the accident. Along with pictures and a bibliography, you will learn about Chernobyl like never before, in no time at all.